Thomas Kivisto Discusses Oil Refining and The 3 Sectors of The Oil Industry
The oil industry is divided into the upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors.
Upstream refers to the exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas. Midstream refers to these products’ transportation, storage, and processing operations, while downstream includes refining, marketing, and distributing petroleum products. This article will discuss how each sector works in detail and its importance in the oil industry.
Thomas Kivisto of San Clemente, California, understands that the upstream sector is responsible for finding and extracting oil and gas from the ground. This process can be extremely complex and expensive, depending on the location of the resources. Oil and gas reserves are typically found in sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, limestone, or shale. The drilling process fractures the rocks, and the hydrocarbons are released. A wellhead then collects these resources at the surface
Once a well has been drilled, the next step is to extract the oil or gas. This is done by pumping water, sand, and chemicals into the well at high pressure. This breaks up the rock around the deposit and allows the hydrocarbons to flow to the surface. The extracted resources are then transported to a processing facility, separated into crude oil, natural gas, and other products.
The midstream sector is responsible for transporting, storing, and processing oil and gas products. The main functions of this sector are:
Once resources have been extracted from the ground, they must be transported to a processing facility or other location. Pipelines, trucks, or railroads do this.
Storage facilities are used to store oil and gas products until they are needed. This helps to ensure a continuous supply of these products.
The downstream sector is responsible for marketing and distributing petroleum products. The main functions of this sector are:
The midstream sector also includes processing operations such as refining and liquefaction. These facilities convert crude oil into finished products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel.
Marketing companies promote and sell petroleum products to consumers and businesses.
Distribution companies move petroleum products to individual retailing sites such as gas stations and convenience stores.
Oil Refining Process
Thomas Kivisto understands that the downstream sector includes oil refining. Once crude oil has been produced and transported, it must be refined into finished products such as gasoline or diesel fuel. The refining process separates the raw material’s usable portion, known as distillates. This is done through a series of chemical reactions called fractional distillation.
Fractional distillation involves heating the crude oil to evaporate into various components with
different boiling points. These components then condense into fractions according to their composition and volatility. The fractions with the highest boiling point represent the oil’s heaviest and least volatile components, while those with the lowest boiling points are the lightest and most volatile.
Heavy fractions such as asphalt, tar, and other heavy oils will condense closer to the bottom of the distillation column. Lightest fractions such as butane and propane will condense close to the top of the distillation column.
The components between these two extremes are middle distillates such as kerosene, diesel fuel, and jet fuel. These products have a high degree of purity and meet specific standards set by governing bodies worldwide. They usually command a higher price than other oil products when sold on an open market.
Steps in The Refining Process
The first step in the refining process is to separate the crude oil into its parts. This is done through fractional distillation.
The next step is to purify the fractions to remove any contaminants. This is done by various methods, such as bleaching and deodorizing.
The purified fractions are then distilled again to remove any residual contaminants.
The final step is to blend the fractions to create finished products like gasoline and diesel fuel. This is done to meet specific standards set by governing bodies.
Finally, additives are added to the products to improve their performance or meet specific regulatory requirements. These additives may include detergents, anti-knocking agents, or corrosion inhibitors.
The refining process is a complex series of steps that must be carefully controlled to produce high-quality products. The fractional distillation column is a key piece of equipment in any refinery and must be operated with precision to achieve the desired results.
Thomas Kivisto believes that the oil refining process has come a long way over the past century. It has evolved from a simple process into a sophisticated operation that can produce many high-quality products. Thomas Kivisto feels that the modern refinery is a vital part of the petroleum industry and plays a significant role in supplying the world.
The refining process takes place in a series of processing units called columns. The crude oil mixture is heated and enters the top of the column. The individual fractions then begin to vaporize and rise the column. The most volatile components, such as butane and propane, reach the top first and condense into a liquid. The less volatile components, such as asphalt and tar, reach the bottom of the column first and condense into a liquid.
The oil refining process is a complex but essential part of the petroleum industry. It is responsible for separating and purifying the crude oil into finished products such as gasoline and diesel fuel. These products are then blended to meet specific standards set by governing bodies. The refining process has come a long way over the past century and plays a vital role in supplying the world with essential energy products.